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Tech Life of Recht » Debugging Postgresql locks

 Debugging Postgresql locks

  • April 18th, 2007
  • 10:47 pm

Having trouble with deadlocks in Postgresql? Or do you just want to know what’s happening in the server? Then read on, here are some of the answers:

List active locks on a database:
[code]
spam=> select l.* from pg_locks l, pg_database d where l.database = d.oid and d.datname = ‘spam’;
locktype | database | relation | page | tuple | transactionid | classid | objid | objsubid | transaction | pid | mode | granted
———-+———-+———-+——+——-+—————+———+——-+———-+————-+——-+——————+———
relation | 1713927 | 10342 | | | | | | | 84974075 | 21333 | AccessShareLock | t
relation | 1713927 | 1713941 | | | | | | | 84974074 | 21775 | AccessShareLock | t
relation | 1713927 | 1713941 | | | | | | | 84974074 | 21775 | RowShareLock | t
relation | 1713927 | 1713955 | | | | | | | 84974074 | 21775 | AccessShareLock | t
relation | 1713927 | 1713957 | | | | | | | 84974074 | 21775 | RowExclusiveLock | t
relation | 1713927 | 1713974 | | | | | | | 84974074 | 21775 | AccessShareLock | t
relation | 1713927 | 2398435 | | | | | | | 84974074 | 21775 | AccessShareLock | t
relation | 1713927 | 2408292 | | | | | | | 84971073 | 19967 | AccessShareLock | t
relation | 1713927 | 2408292 | | | | | | | 84971073 | 19967 | RowExclusiveLock | t
relation | 1713927 | 2408292 | | | | | | | 84971735 | 20050 | AccessShareLock | t
relation | 1713927 | 2408292 | | | | | | | 84971735 | 20050 | RowShareLock | t
tuple | 1713927 | 2408292 | 0 | 4 | | | | | 84971735 | 20050 | ExclusiveLock | t
(12 rows)
[/code]

Here we have 6 locks on database spam. The lock modes are described here, but briefly they mean this:

  • AccessShareLock: The table is locked for shared reading – many transactions can lock for reading concurrently
  • RowShareLock: A row is locked for shared reading
  • RowExclusiveLock: A row is locked for writing (INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE)
  • ExclusiveLock: The table is locked for writing

Exclusive locks prevent others from accessing the data until the lock has been released, and shared locks prevents exclusive locking until they are released.

The relation column from pg_locks points to the table being locked. First, the table name can be found:
[code]
spam=> select relname from pg_class where oid = 2408292;
relname
———
testing
(1 row)
[/code]

So, the last lock in the list is on “testing”. Further, the lock is a tuple lock, meaning on specific rows. In this case, it’s the row at page 0, tuple 4. These numbers are internal, to get the actual data, do like this:
[code]
spam=> select * from testing where ctid = ‘(0,4)’;
id
—-
2
(1 row)
[/code]

The ctid field is an internal field, which identifies the row by it’s physical location. So, we now know exactly which row is locked. We can also see that there are two transactions locking the “testing” relation. Who is waiting for who is not clear, but if we look at the executed commands, it’s possible to see who’s waiting (this requires “stats_command_string = on” in postgresql.conf):

Use the value from the pid column, which represents the process id of the handling process:
[code]
spam=> select current_query, query_start from pg_stat_activity where procpid = 20050;
current_query | query_start
————————————————+——————————-
select * from testing where id = 2 for update; | 2007-04-18 22:35:43.738204+02
(1 row)
[/code]

So, a select query which locks a row (id=2, as expected).

Generally, the pg_* tables contains a lot of useful information, so it’s worth taking a look at them. They are all documented at the postgresql site.

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